Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus

Year Published: 2000

Published In: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Sample: The brains of 42 patients (9 presumed heterosexual males, 9 homosexual males, 10 presumed heterosexual females, 6 trans-women, 6 patients with sex-hormone disorders, 1 non-treated male with cross-sex identity, 1 trans-man)

Conclusion: "Therefore, we determined in 42 subjects the number of somatostatin-expressing neurons in the BSTc in relation to sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, and past or present hormonal status. Regardless of sexual orientation, men had almost twice as many somatostatin neurons as women (P < 0.006). The number of neurons in the BSTc of male-to-female transsexuals was similar to that of the females (P = 0.83). In contrast, the neuron number of a female-to-male transsexual was found to be in the male range. Hormone treatment or sex hormone level variations in adulthood did not seem to have influenced BSTc neuron numbers. The present findings of somatostatin neuronal sex differences in the BSTc and its sex reversal in the transsexual brain clearly support the paradigm that in transsexuals sexual differentiation of the brain and genitals may go into opposite directions and point to a neurobiological basis of gender identity disorder."

DOI: 10.1210/jcem.85.5.6564

Fulltext: Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus

Citation: Kruijver, F. P. M. "Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 85.5 (2000): 2034-041.

Authors

Cited By ( 5 )

Raw Bibtex

@article{doi:10.1210/jcem.85.5.6564,
author={Kruijver, Frank PM and Zhou, Jiang-Ning and Pool, Chris W and Hofman, Michel A and Gooren, Louis JG and Swaab, Dick F},
title={Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus},
journal={The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism},
volume={85},
number={5},
pages={2034-2041},
year={2000},
cited={Chung2002,Gooren2006,Rametti2011,Hare2009, Luders2009}
sample={The brains of 42 patients (9 presumed heterosexual males, 9 homosexual males, 10 presumed heterosexual females, 6 trans-women, 6 patients with sex-hormone disorders, 1 non-treated male with cross-sex identity, 1 trans-man)},
conclusion={"Therefore, we determined in 42 subjects the number of somatostatin-expressing neurons in the BSTc in relation to sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, and past or present hormonal status. Regardless of sexual orientation, men had almost twice as many somatostatin neurons as women (P < 0.006). The number of neurons in the BSTc of male-to-female transsexuals was similar to that of the females (P = 0.83). In contrast, the neuron number of a female-to-male transsexual was found to be in the male range. Hormone treatment or sex hormone level variations in adulthood did not seem to have influenced BSTc neuron numbers. The present findings of somatostatin neuronal sex differences in the BSTc and its sex reversal in the transsexual brain clearly support the paradigm that in transsexuals sexual differentiation of the brain and genitals may go into opposite directions and point to a neurobiological basis of gender identity disorder."},
citation={Kruijver, F. P. M. "Male-to-Female Transsexuals Have Female Neuron Numbers in a Limbic Nucleus." Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 85.5 (2000): 2034-041.}
doi={10.1210/jcem.85.5.6564},
fulltext={http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/jcem.85.5.6564?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed}
}